Thursday, May 21, 2020

Problems Pupils Have In Reading Aloud - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 11 Words: 3306 Downloads: 6 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Statistics Essay Did you like this example? This assignment is my guide to the final step of my dissertation. In this assignment, I will discuss in details about what I will do for my dissertation. First, I will discuss my topic and why I have chosen, it and I will indicate my research questions and sub-questions. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Problems Pupils Have In Reading Aloud" essay for you Create order Next, I will identify key areas I need to read about and I will summarize 11 books and articles that give useful theoretical background for my research. The topics I am interested include define reading, then the process, models, methods of teaching reading, strategies readers use and the miscue analysis in relation to reading strategies. This second section will help me build the literature review for my dissertation. Finally, I will describe my research procedure and research methods I am going to use. Section one: My topic and why I chose it My topic is about problems my pupils have in reading aloud and find ways of improving my pupilsà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ reading aloud. I have chosen this topic because in my experience as a teacher I faced and taught different kinds of pupils from different levels, I have found that most of them have problems in reading, particularly reading aloud. Some of them are good in reading aloud but have many do substitute other words, have omission of words or letter-sounds while reading. This could be due to lack of sight vocabulary, lack of phonic skills, lack of strategies for reading. Some of them canà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢t produce a single word. I discovered that pupils were learning nothing if they could not read aloud. My pupils who cannot read aloud have general difficulty in decode any reading text successfully. I believe my research is important because reading aloud is very important for my pupils in grade 9, which is closer to the final school leaving examinations in grade 12. I hope it may able me and my colleges to find the diagnoses to help the participants and in future to help all my pupils with their reading problems . In my research I wil try to analyze and describe their miscues in reading aloud according to their levels good, average and week. That time I couldnà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢t do any thing about it because I didnà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢t have the experience to help them. After I joined the B.A course and studied EDUC 2031 TEYL, EDUC2033 Initial Literacy, EDUC2028 Language learning from these modules I realized the nature of young learners how do they learn, how do they acquire new language and how to teach reading to young learners. As I understood the older ways of teaching reading focused on letters and words and how to say them, all language books are concerning on that view only. The new researches showed a different view which rely on development of all language skills so, because reading in a second language is seen as a thinking exercise thatà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s not only concerned on reading words, sentences and pages only but it is on developing language as a whole. Reading is the main reason to build the personality of a person as I mentioned before and it is the main thing that teaching and learning stands on because it is a communication way between the learner and the academic culture in the schools . I would like my pupils to be able to use reading for study, for pleasure , to understand and to interact with what they learning. My pupils are in grade 9 of general education school at the age of 14 years old with different ability levels. They have been studying English for five years only using à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"Our World Through Englishà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢. They started leaning English from grade 4. In addition, they are similar in many things such as pupils environment, strengths and weakness areas they have. I decided to do research for my dissertation where I will focus on finding the difficulties my pupils face in reading aloud and helping me find ways to improve my pupils in reading aloud. Although my research will focus on reading aloud, from my experience a pupil cannot read aloud well, he can have little or no comprehension when he read silently. My research question is: How can I develop the reading aloud abilities of my grade nine pupils?. My sub-questions will be: What miscues my good pupils and weak pupils make when reading aloud? Based on my miscue analysis, what reading strategies do my good pupils and my weak pupils use when reading aloud? What reading strategies can I encourage my pupils to develop to improve their reading? In my research the subjects will be six pupils from 2 of them are good , the other 2 are average and the last 2 are weak pupils) (785 words) Section 2 Summaries of relevant literature The key areas I will need to read about for my research are: reading process models of reading Methods of teaching reading. reading strategies miscue analysis How miscue analysis can be used to identify the reading strategies that pupils use and the errors they make. In this section I discuss 11 books / articles that I want to use for my dissertation because they will help me to develop my understanding of issues related to my research. The aspects that are relevant to my study are summarized below. Urquhart and Weir(1998) Urquhart and Weir discuss three models of reading and I will state them here : Bottom up approach. They say this analyses begin with the stimulus, i.e. the text, or bits of the text. They say that in Goughà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s (1972) model, the reader begins with letters, which are recognized by a scanner. The information thus gained is passed to decoder, which converts the string of letters into a string of systematic phonemes, then word, then sentence then text. So à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“bottom-up models are sequential in that one stage is completed before another is begunà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬?. Top-down approaches. Since bottom-up models starts with the smallest text unit, either letters or letter features, we could expect, then, that top-down models begin with the largest unit, the whole text. According to Urquhart and Weir for top-down model of reading, readers first use their background knowledge to help them make a sense from the text. So for top-down approaches background knowledge is very important. Interactive approach. In interactive models (Urquhart and Weir refer to Rumelhart, 1977), there is no regular sequence from top to bottom or from bottom up. They quote Stanovich à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“the best known proponent of interactive modelsà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬?, that in interactive models a pattern is synthesized based on information provided simultaneously from several sourceà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬? (1980:35). So in interactive approaches reader uses both small text units and background knowledge to make sense out of a text at the same time. Urquhart and Weir describes reading strategies to be a conscious response to difficulties in the text while reading action selected deliberately to achieve goals (Is this a Quotation?). Aebersold and Field (1997) Aebersold and Field also have sections on models of reading (bottom up , top down and interactive). They also focus on the readerà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s experience in learning how to read and the ways reading fits into their lives. They give five common influential sources for information that affect reading development, particularly family, the community and the school influence. They mention that despite relatively small size, a family can foster a variety of experience that affects a childà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s reading development. They say that the community influence provides readers with a set of varied life experiences that also shape their individual knowledge. Thirdly the school can bring children into contact with communities other than their own or they can be homogeneous institution that reflect shared values. This is interesting because in Oman children learn English without much support from the family or the community and school does not bring child in contact to many other c ommunities. Riley (1996) This article has a section on models of reading (bottom up , top down and interactive). The author discusses how schema theory describes the process by which readers combine their own background knowledge with the information in a text to help them comprehend that text. All readers carry different schemata (background information) and these are also often culture-specific. This is an important concept in ESL teaching, and many books have pre-reading tasks that are designed to build or activate the learners schemata. The author also highlights some of the limitations of the use of the schema-theory approach and points out the importance both of developing the learners vocabulary and of encouraging extensive reading. (This sounds as if it is copied. Beware plagiarism, Saif.) Wray and Medwell (1991) This article focuses on reading process , models of reading and approaches to teaching reading. In reading process, they mentioned that reading is a highly complicated process, and there are a number of insights and concepts that the successful reader must develop. In models of reading, they discuss bottom-up models, top-down models, and interactive models and they strongly criticize the bottom up model. They also have a section on teaching reading approaches look and say, phonic methods of teaching reading and language experience approach. I discuss these under Graton and Spratt (1998) below. Graton and Pratt (1998) This book have useful sections on methods of teaching reading (whole word , phonics , language experience ) the methods teachers can use to teach pupils how to read. Most teachers use these methods to help their student in reading , sometimes they chooses one of these methods but some teachers work on two or more because they think each method is completed by the other. The phonic method as widely used from the language teachers to teach reading and writing in the English for second language learners. It is relies on children being taught the alphabet first. Then they learn to pronounce the sounds of the letters . However it is difficult to depend only to phonics because English is not a regular spelling language. The second method is look and say or whole word method. Here pupils learn to recognize whole words or sentences rather than individual sounds. The pupils will look at a word which the teacher sound, often with a picture, and in turns will repeat the word. The problem is that it does not teach children to work out new words for themselves. The context support method can be used when the pupils are just learning to read and it is important to choose exercises or activities that really interest them. If the pupils like cars, choose an activity or exercises with pictures and simple words about cars. This will keep their interest and they will enjoy learning with the teach. Oà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢Malley and Valdez Pierce (2001) Oà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢Malley and Valdez Pierce give a useful part about miscue analysis (p 124-5). They say it involves listening to a student reading aloud and recording the miscues. In types of miscues, they mention repetitions, substitutions, insertions, omissions and self-corrections. They also recommend the teacher must get the student to answer reading comprehension questions. They say miscue analysis can provide information about (1) the readersà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ ability to use language and the reading process (2) it can be used for assessing reading, the readerà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s approaches to reading and reading comprehension (3) information for revising approaches to teaching reading, how it can be used by teachers effectively to improve their learners reading. This book has useful lists of reading strategies (p 121-123) and suggest how miscue analysis can be used to identify reading strategies readers are using. The authors talk about reading in the native language then reading in second language, which I am interested in. The writers said that learners who do have native language literacy skills might not know how to transfer their skills to the second language without specific strategy instruction. Carter and Nunan (Eds.) (2001) Carter and Nunan (Eds) (2001) define reading strategies as à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“Ways of accessing text meaning which are employed flexibly and selectively in the course of reading. In teaching, attention is paid to the manner in which the reader is able to draw effectively on existing linguistic and background knowledgeà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬?. They list the good reading strategies that learners use to help them read in a very efficient way, to get maximum benefit from their reading with minimum effort. These include drawing inferences, predicting and using information in the text such as pictures. They also discuss miscue analysis in relation to reading strategies: As they say, miscue analysis refers to à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“the study of the text alterations conducted by the subject while the pupil reads the text and would be very impossible without reading aloudà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬?. Carter and Nunan (Eds) (2001) assert that for early readers miscue analysis can be used by teachers to assess the quality and quantity of learnerà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s errors in their processing of text. First, this is especially useful for L2 learners à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“who because of their interlanguage system may show systemic syntactic and phonological departures from Standard Englishà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬?. In addition, they argue that miscues will be based on learnersà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ current interlanguage rather than because of misunderstanding the text. Wallace (2001) p26 in Carter and Nunan (2001) Wallace discusses miscue analysis and she focuses on how miscue analysis can be used for early readers to assess the quality and the quantity of learnersà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ errors. Beard (1987) Beard has a section on miscue analysis and methods of teaching reading (whole word , phonics , language experience). The author focuses on miscue analysis and gives some models of how to use miscue analysis to develop pupilsà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ reading and how à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“miscue analysis can fulfill an important diagnostic function of a kind not readily offered by other more established means of reading assessment.à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬? Cameron (2001) The author has sections on reading strategies , models of reading (bottom up , top down and interactive) , methods of teaching reading(whole word , phonics , language experience ) and discusses how miscues can help the teacher identify the reading strategies a reader is using . The author gives an example from her experience of reading with a little Malaysian girl. The author mentioned that she had introduced her to the strategies such as: à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“With the word à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"barà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢, I pointed to the first letter , the sound of which she knew, and then she managed to sound out the wordà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬?. à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“With the word à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"ratherà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ I just told her the word and did not spend any time on it , because it was not crucial to the meaning of the story and is not a particularly useful word to learn at her stageà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬?. With the word à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"mealsà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ I told her the word and then explained the meaning as the story progressed and the heroine moved from break fast to tea.à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬? à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“When she came to à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"watching TVà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ she said à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"washingà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ . From this miscue I could see that she was making a good attempt at the word and had noticed the initial consonant and the final rime.à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬? www.mindtools.com/pages/articals/ According to www.mindtools.com/pages/articals/ miscue analysis refers to the study of text alterations made by the subject while s/he reads the text aloud. They summarise the research of Clay, Goodman and Weber (Davies 1995, p13) and they give a useful list of types of miscues. They say that the alterations often made by a reader are: Substitution (another word is pronounced instead of the printed word) Self-correction (the reader realizes his/her mistake and corrects by him/herself.) Repetition (the printed word is repeated orally) Omission (a word is missed from the text) Insertion (a word not in the text is added by the reader) Reversal (the word order gets changed or inverted) Hesitation (the reader pauses or makes a sound indicating hesitation) A long pause. The article also relates the miscues to approaches. It says that if a reader shows more hesitations, long pauses and self-correction, this shows a bottom up approach with the reader giving most attention to pronouncing the printed words. If a reader shows more miscues such as omission, insertion, reversal and substitution, this shows a more top-down approach where the reader is paying attention to the meaning of the whole text, not reading word by word. (Check this is not plagiarized. Can you give authors?) (1,910 words) How I will investigate my research question As discussed above, my research question will be à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“How can I develop the reading aloud abilities of my grade nine pupils ? à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“ My Approach: For my approach and method, I read Blaxter, Hughes, Tight, (2000), Cohen, Manion, Morrison (2000), Nunan (1992). For my research approach, I will use an action research approach enabling me to investigate my own pupils over a period. Action research grows from the idea that a good teacher is one who reflects on what happens in the classroom à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å" possibly with a view to changing it. (EDUC3079 session3). My Method For my research I will plan to use miscue analysis and interviews. The miscue analysis will provide quantitative data and the interviews will provide qualitative data. I will select a text from the course book which is not familiar to my pupils , I will let them each to read aloud this text , I will record them while reading , then I will use miscue analyses to help me analyse their mistakes. Finally I will interview each pupil, I will ask questions to to assess their comprehension of the text, to get them to tel me what strategies they used to work out the meanings of some words and to try to find out why they failed to read certain words correctly. The research Procedure My research will include an unknown reading text from the OWTE course book that the six pupils will read it in order to have effective and organized results for my research question. This text from the course book OWTE that I think will be not familiar for the pupils because I gave it to them for the first time (See the appendix). First I will use pre-reading questions to prepare each pupil for the reading. Pre-reading is a way of sampling where the students are familiar to the content that you are going to give them. It is a useful strategy for beginning with a class, especially when classes contain students with mixed abilities coming from a diversity of backgrounds. Then each pupil will read the text and I record it. Then I will note down all the miscues. Finally I will interview them to examine their understanding, to assess their comprehension of the text, to get them to tel me what strategies they used to work out the meanings of some words and to try to find out why they faile d to read certain words correctly. My Expectations: I expect some problems, and here I discuss how I will overcome them: Miscue analysis, I cannot assume that any two pupils will have the same miscues. In addition, anxiety may cause artificial results. To overcome these problems, I will choose six pupils from different levels. I will try to get them relaxed, so I will tell them about the reason for my research, and I will do the recording in a quiet place, so we are undisturbed. Pupils may feel boring from doing reading every time, so I must prepare a good situation for them to feel comfortable. The main problem I think it is the time. These kinds of studies should not used in a short period because the researcher need to try many ways to investigate his pupils and his study in order to collect a valid, reliable data. Conclusion: The EDUC 3079 helped me a lot on finding solutions for many problems that I will face in future in my life as a teacher to help my pupils to reach the successes in their life as students. I learned how to read a lot and how to use the linguistics theories to help my pupils and to learn and discover the problems. The use of miscue analysis is a very useful way to solve pupils weaknesses in reading because it is allows me to focus on the problem it self , and how to deal with each problem individually.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Psychological Conditioning and Theories of Behavior

Introduction- In the field of psychology, behaviorism was one of the theoretical ideas that changed quite drastically during the 20th century. Behaviorism tried to diminish the emphasis on the conscious and unconscious parts of the mind, instead putting forward a new way to look at human behavior that is empirical (observed, quantified, and measured). Ivan Pavlov, for instance, was researching the digestive systems of dogs and led him to the discovery of classical condition, a way to modify behaviors using conditioned responses. Pavlovs views intrigued American John Watson, who pushed the idea forward in up through the 1950s. Building on these theories, but amending the model with the effects of punishment and reward, B.F. Skinners work had a revolutionary effect on behaviorism, now called operant conditioning (Shiraev, 2010, pp. 246-54). Learning Theory- Some say a logical reaction to Darwinism and the theory of natural selection, some say the logical offshoot of 19th century social science, learning theory became extremely importantly by the end of the 19th and beginning of the early 20th centuries. One of the central aspects of the continual debate on learning theory is the difference between empirical and theoretical learning. Empirical learning is a process that compares items (objects) and finds observable characteristics and similarities. Theoretical learning holds that the individual is supplied with environmental stimuli (instruction, for instance) and a set ofShow MoreRelatedWhy Do We Do Your Regular Schedules?1368 Words   |  6 Pagesthe right theory because I believe that everything a person does, why they think they way they do, why they do the things they do is because that’s how they were taught or trained to think or act. As children, we’re more perceptive and receptive than most people think, we lead by example and we reflect what we see from those around us, like a sort of mirror memory. Behaviorism is a theory in psychology and philosophy that emphasizes the outward behavioral aspects of thought. The theory is that humanRead MoreJohn B. Watson s Theory Of Psychology1048 Words   |  5 Pagesgreat American psychologist whose theories, publications, and experiments had an enduring influence on psychology. Possibly his biggest contributions to psychology were his theory of behaviorism and his experiment on Little Albert. Though Watson’s experiments were extremely unethical and behaviorism doesn’t account for biological psychology, Watson was an extremely remarkable psychologist because of his principal of behaviorism and his findings on classical conditioning. Background John Broadus WatsonRead MoreWatson, Skinner and Tolman Essay1627 Words   |  7 Pagesamong them based on their theories and perspectives. Each theory and concept is like steps on a ladder that define prior events that lead to current day theory known as modern day psychology. Respectfully John B. Watson is the founder of behaviorism and B.F. Skinner is the founder of radical behaviorism, but Edward Tolman marches to a different drum and is known for developing cognitive theory. Herein we will compare and contrast each theory and formulate how each theory is imperative in 2012.Read MoreThe Theory Of Behaviorism Operant Conditioning993 Words   |  4 Pagesbehaviorism Operant Conditioning. He would rather study observable behavior rather than internal mental events. He felt that was the best way to see how one may react to a particular stimuli and how one would handle the situation. Skinner believed that if a behavior is reinforced the behavior will continue. This had a two sid ed effect. If the bad behavior was reinforced the bad behavior would continue. Such as the good behavior, if it is reinforced and rewarded, the good behavior will continue. AlbertRead MoreEssay on The Comparison of Sigmund Freud and B.F. Skinner892 Words   |  4 Pagestendency to trace nearly all psychological problems back to sexual issues. Although only parts of his theory of psychosexual development are still accepted by mainstream psychologists, Freuds theory of the Oedipal Complex has become a cultural icon (Freud, Sigmund, 2012). Freud is known for developing the use of psychoanalysis. Psychoanalysis is based on the observation that people are often unaware of many of the things that determine their emotions and behavior. Psychoanalytic treatment demonstratesRead MoreDiverse Nature of Psychology Essay1150 Words   |  5 Pagesperspectives on psychology. For their different views on human behaviors, cognition, perception, or social or psychological factors that may hinder ones behaviors or thought process. Theorist and their own views, beliefs and perspectives on psychology is a prime example of diversity, because as we all know no two individuals thinks nor perceives things even psychology within the same manner. With all the diverse perspectives, elements, and theories within psychology, it makes it a challenge for researchersRead MoreBehaviorism s Theory Of Psychology983 Words   |  4 Pagesbehaviorism holds the subject matter of human psychology it focus on the behavior or activities of the human being . Etymology The word behaviorism originates from the Middle French word behavior, meaning the observable activity in human and animal. This term was coined in 1913 by the United States psychologist John B. Watson. Many of the concepts of analysis of behavior can be traced back to Pavlov. Pavlov focused on the behavior of animals. History of Behaviorism The history of behaviorism beganRead MoreThe Contribution of Different Approaches to Psychology for the Development of Modern Psychology1147 Words   |  5 Pages Psychology is a vast field which consists of theories and approaches where it involves certain assumptions on human behavior. How they function and the aspects of the behavior that needs to be studied, in addition to the research methods that are needed to be followed in order to understand it thoroughly. These approaches provide characteristic viewpoints and emphasize different factors. These approaches have contributed towards the development of modern psychology in various ways. Read MoreSituational Conditioning And Classical Conditioning1053 Words   |  5 PagesIn the world today, psychology plays a huge role. There are many psychological factors people use on a day to day basis. Many factors such as the way people act, talk, think, and go about their day have some form of psychological conditioning or theory. However, people are unaware of the factors they put in on a day to day basis. Psychologists have made it so that people can fully comprehend these theories. This paper will show how everyday scenarios in the educational field can be broken down andRead MoreBehaviorism : A Psychological Perspective1018 Words   |  5 PagesArthur Espinoza Professor McMahon Psychology 101 11/2/15 Behaviorism Behaviorism is a psychological perspective that focuses on an individual’s behavior. The main theorist behind this perspective was John Broadus Watson, who established the psychological school of behaviorism. Through his behaviorist views, he spectated the behavior of humans and animals when put into different situations. Watson published and article titled â€Å"Psychology as the Behaviorist Views it† where he explained his position

Manipulation in William Shakespeare’s Othello Free Essays

Manipulation in William Shakespeare’s â€Å"Othello† In William Shakespeare’s play â€Å"Othello†, almost every character, and even the audience, is manipulated at least once. Iago, the villain, is responsible for most of this betrayal. He is a master at the art of deception. We will write a custom essay sample on Manipulation in William Shakespeare’s Othello or any similar topic only for you Order Now He gains the trust of the other characters by posing as a concerned friend. When they confide in him, he uses their weakness against them. He treats each character differently, telling them what they want to hear. He is so cunning that they are unaware of the manipulation and, after each encounter, trust him even more. With each lie, he moves closer to his goal of destroying Othello. Iago weaves an intricate web of deception. First, he targets Rodrigo. He preys on Rodrigo’s love for Desdemona and convinces him he can gain her affection if he helps him. Iago convinces Rodrigo that Desdemona will end her relationship with Othello if her father disapproves. Then, the two plot to involve Brabantio, Desdemona’s father. Iago speaks of how he will destroy Brabantio’s faith in his daughter when he says â€Å"Call up her father. Rouse him. Make after him; poison his delights† (1. 1. 70). He hereby manipulated Rodrigo, Brabantio, Desdemona and Othello in one swoop, still appearing to be the trustworthy confidant. The theme is further demonstrated through Iago’s manipulation of Othello, his main target. He is upset with his superior for promoting Cassio over him and has heard rumors that Othello slept with his wife. So, he begins planting the idea that Desdemona has been unfaithful with Cassio in Othello’s head. Iago says â€Å"Look to your wife. Observe her well with Cassio† (3. 3. 211). He proceeds to gain Othello’s trust and cultivates his deceit. He tells Othello he will get proof from Cassio by letting him listen in on their conversation. Cassio speaks of is date with Bianca, but Iago leads Othello to believe they are talking about Desdemona. At one point, Iago even enlists his wife to steal Desdemona’s handkerchief, which he uses to further convince Othello of her infidelity. When his manipulation results in Othello murdering his wife and finally committing suicide, Iago achieves his goal of vengeance. Iago manipulates each character through their individual weakness until his plan is complete. He plays each person against each other for his agenda. Meanwhile he remains to be seen as the good guy. Blinded by their own inequities, Iago preys upon his unsuspecting victims and uses the as pawns in his elaborate plan to destroy Othello. They are easily manipulated by their trusted friend. Iago is so masterful in his deception at times even the audience is almost fooled by his misleading charm. Works Cited Shakespeare, William. â€Å"Othello. † Gioia, X. J. Kennedy and Dana. Literature An Introduction to Fiction, Poetry, Drama, and Writing 7th Edition. Boston: Peason, 2013. 1009-1102. print. How to cite Manipulation in William Shakespeare’s Othello, Papers

Saturday, April 25, 2020

The Vietnam War Essays (2762 words) - Vietnam War,

The Vietnam War The Vietnam War The Vietnam War is truly one of the most unique wars ever fought by the Unites States of by any country. It was never officially declared a war (Knowll, 3). It had no official beginning nor an official end. It was fought over 10,000 miles away in a virtually unknown country. The enemy and the allies looked exactly the alike, and may by day be a friend but by night become an enemy (Aaseng 113). It matched the tried and true tactics of World War Two against a hide, run, and shoot technique known as "Guerrilla Warfare." It matched some of the best trained soldiers in the world against largely an untrained militia of untrained farmers. The United States' soldiers had at least a meal to look forward to unlike the Communist Vietnamese soldiers who considered a fine cuisine to be cold rice and, if lucky, rat meat. The Vietnam War matched the most technically advanced country with one of the least advanced, and the lesser advanced not only beat but humiliated the strongest mi litary in the world (Aaseng, 111). When the war was finally showing signs of end, the Vietnamese returned to a newly unified communist country while the United Stated soldiers returned to be called "baby killers", and were often spat upon. With the complexities of war already long overdrawn because of the length of the war it is no wonder the returning solders often left home confused and returned home insane. Through an examination of the Vietnam War, in particular an event know as the My Lai Massacre, and the people involved with both, it can be proven that when the threshold for violence of a person is met or exceeded, the resulting psychological scarring becomes the most prominent reason for war being hell. Although officially, the Vietnam Conflict had neither a beginning nor an end, for the purpose of this paper it can be best examined through the decade the United States was involved: February 6, 1965 - August 30, 1975. During World War Two the French had been a major ally to the United States in the defeat of Adolph Hitler and the Axis Powers. France occupied and claimed the small coastline country of Vietnam in Indochina. In this region there had been recent Communist uprisings funded by the USSR The Vietnamese were willing to accept Communism in return for what they had been fighting for over 2000 years: self rule. In 1950 the United States, owing a debt of gratitude towards France, sent several advisors to aid French control in Vietnam. Over the next decade and a half, the United States would send an entire Army and Navy to aid the French in maintaining control in South Vietnam, which had separated from the Communist North Vietnam by treaty in 1954. In early August of 1964 a small Vietcong (term used to identify South Vietnamese in favor of communism and unification) patrol boat had an encounter with a United States war ship in the Gulf of Tonkin. Gunfire was exchanged, and, in the end, President Johnson agreed to allow aggressive retaliation. On Feb ruary 6, 1965, the United States began the bombing of North Vietnamese cities, marking the unofficial start of the Vietnam War (Winthrop, 853-861). In the years of the war to follow, the media began to play a role. Photo-journalists would accompany platoons on missions and, through the aid of cameras and video equipment, relate the stories to the American at home. Every night for the length of the war news programs were saturated with reports of the happenings in Vietnam and death tolls for the day. Grossly eggzrated enemy casualty numbers were reported, giving the public a false view of happenings of the war. Suddenly on January 30, 1968 a Vietcong uprising, now commonly known as the Tet Offensive, took place. Tet is the Vietnamese new year and is commonly accepted as a cease-fire. With a cease-fire in effect, most major cities' defensives were less tight. As if all at once, more than one hundred South Vietnamese cities were being shelled with Vietcong gunfire. Included in the citi es were Saigon, capital of South Vietnam and home to the United

Wednesday, March 18, 2020

Love Themes in Romeo and Juliet

Love Themes in 'Romeo and Juliet' Romeo and Juliet has become forever associated with love. The play has become an iconic story of love and passion, and the name â€Å"Romeo† is still used to describe young lovers. Shakespeare’s treatment of love in the play is complex and multifaceted. He uses love in its many guises to thread together the key relationships in the play. Fickle Love Some characters fall in and out of love very quickly in Romeo and Juliet. For example, Romeo is in love with Rosaline at the start of the play, which is presented as an immature infatuation. Today, we might use the term â€Å"puppy love† to describe this. Romeo’s love for Rosaline is shallow, and nobody really believes that it will last, including Friar Laurence: Romeo. Thou chidst me oft for loving Rosaline.Friar Laurence. For doting, not for loving, pupil mine. Similarly, Paris’ love for Juliet is borne out of tradition, not passion. He has identified her as a good candidate for a wife and approaches her father to arrange the marriage. Although this was the tradition at the time, it also says something about Paris’ staid attitude towards love. He even admits to Friar Laurence that in his haste to rush the wedding through he hasn’t discussed it with his bride-to-be: Friar Laurence. On Thursday, sir? the time is very short.Paris. My father Capulet will have it so;And I am nothing slow to slack his haste.Friar Laurence. You say you do not know the ladys mind:Uneven is the course, I like it not.Paris. Immoderately she weeps for Tybalts death,And therefore have I little talked of love; Romantic Love Our classic idea of romantic love is embodied in Romeo and Juliet. Shakespeare presents this as a force of nature, so strong that it transcends societal conventions. This idea is established in the play’s prologue with the line â€Å"a pair of star-crossed lovers take their life.† Perhaps Romeo and Juliets love is fate - there love is given cosmic significance which can, therefore, overturn the social boundaries of â€Å"fair Verona.† Their love is disallowed by the Capulet and Montague households, and Juliet is to marry Paris – Yet, they inevitably find themselves drawn together. Other Types of Love Many of the friendships in the play are as sincere as Romeo and Juliet’s love for one another. The close relationships between Juliet and her Nurse, and between Romeo, Mercutio and Benvolio are meaningful and heartfelt. They care deeply for another and protect each others honor – this ultimately costs Mercutio his life. This platonic love is offset by the sexual innuendos made by some characters – particularly Juliet’s Nurse and Mercutio. Their view of love is earthy and purely sexual, creating an effective contrast with Romeo and Juliet’s romanticism.

Monday, March 2, 2020

Four Powerful Ways to Bring Your Writing Goals Closer

Four Powerful Ways to Bring Your Writing Goals Closer Four Powerful Ways to Bring Your Writing Goals Closer Four Powerful Ways to Bring Your Writing Goals Closer By Ali Hale Do you wish you could get further with your writing? Perhaps you want to: Finally finish that novel that you started ten years ago Improve your spelling and grammar Make money from your writing Have a popular blog with lots of readers Publish a non-fiction book to support your business or something else entirely. Whatever your writing goal is, follow these four steps and you’ll find yourself making much faster progress. #1: Write More Frequently You don’t have to write every day, but you do need to write regularly. Be honest: how often do you write? If it’s less than twice a week, you’ll probably find yourself struggling to make any meaningful progress. The great thing about writing frequently is that small steps really do add up. For instance: If you write 500 words three times a week, you’ll have 78,000 words after a year. That’s a whole novel. If you write two blog posts every week, you’ll have 104 blog posts after a year. If you write just 200 words every single day (about two paragraphs), you’ll have 73,000 words after a year. That’s enough for three non-fiction ebooks. Do it: Decide on a time and place for your writing. Aim for at least two sessions per week, and a total of 1,500 words every week. #2: Edit After You Write There are two traps that writers fall into with editing, and both cause problems: Editing while writing Not editing at all If you edit while you write, you’ll struggle to get anywhere. You’ll write a paragraph or two and immediately delete them because you think they aren’t good enough. It’s much more efficient to simply write until you’ve finished the article, chapter or scene that you’re working on. You can edit later. If you don’t edit at all, your work won’t be as good as it could be. Nobody can write a perfect first draft. Your writing might need just a quick polish, or it might need a radical overhaul: either way, editing is essential – after you’ve written. Do it: Next time you write, don’t stop to edit. Keep moving forwards. When you do finish, print your work out and read it through on paper: this makes it easier to spot mistakes and things that you want to change. #3: Learn New Techniques Whatever type of writing you do, there’ll always be something new to learn. Great writers aren’t born that way: they become great through conscious practice and through deliberately developing their craft. There are all sorts of things you can learn, either from books or from taking a writing course. For instance: Freelancers: How to write great sales copy for clients Novelists: How to write dialogue Bloggers: How to write guest posts to bring in more readers Poets: How to use different formal structures Do it: Pick ONE new writing skill that you want to gain, in order to take your writing further. Look for a book or course that could help you. You’ll need to set aside time to learn and time to put what you learn into practice. #4: Get Help and Support Writing can feel like a very lonely activity at times – but it doesn’t have to be that way. Help and support from other writers will make a huge difference to your chances of success: it’s much easier to write regularly when you’re part of a supportive community. Your local area may well have a writers’ group that meets regularly: try looking for adverts in your library or in bookstores, or search on Meetup.com. If there isn’t a group nearby, how about starting one yourself? If it’s not easy for you to meet up face-to-face with other writers, you can find hundreds of different writing communities online. As well as giving you the opportunity to ask advice and share tips with other members, these also often allow you to share your writing and get feedback. Do it: Look for a writers’ group locally or online, and consider joining. If you’re not sure about joining a formal group, try searching for other writers on Twitter. Ali Luke is a writer and writing coach, and has just launched a new community and teaching site, WritersHuddle.com. The doors are open until 31st January. Inside, you’ll find mini-courses to help you learn new skills, forums where you can interact with other members, and lots of other goodies too. Make sure to check it out. Want to improve your English in five minutes a day? Get a subscription and start receiving our writing tips and exercises daily! Keep learning! Browse the Freelance Writing category, check our popular posts, or choose a related post below:Types of RhymeCapitalization Rules for the Names of GamesA "Diploma" is not a "Degree"

Friday, February 14, 2020

Operatiom management Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words - 1

Operatiom management - Essay Example There is need to analyze the concept of organizational communication by making an assessment on a chosen case. This will include the creation of a case and analyze the case. Once the case has been created and analyzed, the paper will highlight an assessment on the case and its analysis. The following case is based on a personal experience in an organization that was embracing the Maori culture. I worked as a junior employee at Tikanga Maori Consulting, Inc. since its incorporation the company was based on the culture of the Maori community found in New Zealand. The operations of the company were based on values and beliefs of the Maori culture. The founding members of the organization were determined to protect the Maori culture and made every efforts towards making sure that any stakeholders in the company respected the values and customs of the company that were based on the Maori culture. This was evident in the way the company had designed its vision statement. The company‘s vision statement purely focused on Maori norms and values. The company communicated these values in the Maori language in efforts aimed at reinforcing the approach of communicating the organization’s culture to the stakeholders. The company developed over a long period of time and grew into a big organization with approximately over 100 employees. The growth of an organization often represents a difficult situation in terms of managing the number of employees. However, the organization was able to manage its large number of employees because it had also grown to develop its culture. Employees were in unity with the company management because the company had made a point to always communicate to the employees about the different values of the company. The philosophy of the company was based on developing and preserving the Maori culture. The